Both men and women make important contributions to reproduction, yet demographic studies have tended to focus on women alone. The aims of this paper are: 1) to describe why men have had a low profile as subjects in demographic research on reproduction; 2) to explain growing interest in studying men's roles; 3) to evaluate existing research in developing countries; and 4) to suggest directions for future research on male reproductive roles. Men, once neglected, are now included in demographic research but from a problem-oriented perspective and on a limited number of topics. A review of the literature, however, does not fully support a problem-oriented approach. Demography should focus on men not only as women's partners, but also as individuals with distinct reproductive histories. As the links between marriage and childbearing continue to weaken worldwide, the differences in men's and women's reproductive experiences and the costs and benefits of parenting will become more salient for future research.